The Christian face of Egypt started to change by the beginning of the second millennium A.D., when Copts, in addition to the Jyzia tax, suffered from specific disabilities, some of which were serious and interfered with their freedom of worship. For example, there were restrictions on repairing old Churches and building new ones, on testifying in court, on public behavior, on adoption, on inheritance, on public religious activities, and on dress codes. Slowly but steadily, by the end of the 12th century, the face of Egypt changed from a predominantly Christian to a predominantly Muslim country and the Coptic community occupied an inferior position and lived in some expectation of Muslim hostility, which periodically flared into violence. It is remarkable that the well-being of Copts was more or less related to the well-being of their rulers. In particular, the Copts suffered most in those periods when Arab dynasties were at their low.The Encyclopedia Coptica reports that in the 19th century the Jyzia tax was lifted. Further Western influence forged modern Egypt. With the re-emergence of Islamic fundamentalism with the foundation of the Islamic Brotherhood in the 1920's, the Copts have been subject to persecution and terror.
- Sep 2010 - Christian Copts Living As Slaves to Muslims in Egyptian Village - Bassem Shehata, 25, an IT graduate who attended the rally at the Patriarchate, said in an aired interview with Coptic activist Wagih Yacoub “We live in utter slavery. If Copts, some of whom are landowners, disobey orders of the big Muslim families, they are flogged.” Bassem said that last year his 14-year-old brother Shenouda was tied by members of a Muslim family to a pole, beaten and tortured in front of his father just because the father did not lend them his tractor. “Each time my father begged for mercy for his child, he was also beaten.” He said despite the family feeling “broken inside” his father refused to report the incident, fearing reprisals from the Muslim family (PERSECUTION).
- Sep 2010 - AINA adds that "nearly 1000 Copts in the village of 3000 live in servitude to Muslim families, especially a large one called Al-Khawaimin, which includes the mayor, the village Shaikh, a large number of relatives and their friends. Copts are not allowed to sell their livestock on the market but have to sell it to Muslims in the village at a fraction of their fair price, and hire agricultural machinery only from village Muslims at the highest prices. "If Copts do not obey, they are subjected to harsh punishments," he said. "These include threats of killings, abduction of girls, destruction of crops, burning of houses and beatings."